The greater one is horned Rhino in Assam

Shillong, Prangan Duarah: Rhino, The third largest animal in the world represents a uniqueness and power of wildlife. There are five varieties of Rhino alive in this current earth and amongst them, the greater one-horned rhino is the largest of the rhino species. Best-known for their single black horn of about 8-25 inches long, power and their armor plated appearance, one-horned rhino, scientifically known as Rhinoceros unicornis, are the most famous and curious creatures of Assam as well as Indian wildlife that attract overseas visitors and locals alike. The greater one-horned Rhino was densely populated in all over northern India, in both Ganges and Brahmaputra valley of India in Few centuries ago. But in the early 20th century, the number decreased drastically from thousands to just 200, which was very close to extinction. But fortunately after this alarming population, by 2012 conservation efforts observed that the populations grow to over 3,000 in the forests of India and Nepal, and the grasslands of Assam and north Bengal in northeast India as a result of extreme care and precaution taken by Indian Government. Assam Specially Kaziranga, a world heritage site where most of the rhinos were surviving kept under strict observation. According to the population tally held in March 2015, which was jointly conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the rhino population in Kaziranga National Park is 2,401. It comprises 1,651 adult rhinos including 663 male, 802 are females, 186 unsexed and 294 sub-adults (90 males, 114 females, 90 unsexed); 251 juveniles and 205 cubs.

The greater one-horned rhino found in Assam is one of the most amphibious rhino of the world. The Orang National park in Darrang district and the Pobitora wildlife centuary in Marigaon district are two small forests that inhabit of greater one-horned rhino apart from Kaziranga National park. One-horned rhinos are excellent swimmer and can run at a speed of 55 km/hr. A full grown male Rhino can be 6.5 feet in height, 12.5 feet in length and 2500 kilogram in weight. Females are little smaller than the males and can be 2000 kg in weight. Rhinos have very strong smelling and hearing power but weak in eye-sight. The most uniqueness of India Rhino is the single horn, while African rhinos have two horns. This single horn can be 8-12 inches in length.
But Poaching of greater one-horned rhinos for their horns which are used in traditional Asian medicines, primarily for the treatment of a variety of ailments including epilepsy, fevers and strokes continues to be a major threat. But there is no scientific proof of its medical value. Despite protections and bans on international trade of rhino horn, extensive illegal trade persists throughout Asia especially in Kaziranga National park of Assam which hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses. To increase the population of rhinos to 3000 in the total of seven protected area of Assam, a mission called “India Rhino Vision” 2020 was started by WWF in 2008. It is also a big challenge for the government of Assam as well as the government of India to save this peace loving animal.